Nowadays, for every birth month of the year, there is a corresponding gemstone to accompany it. How this came to be or happened, has never been fully known, but there have been myths and biblical stories which have been used to try and piece the gemstone mystery together.
It has been said that the first people to ever use gemstones and actually introduced it into the world, was Aaron from the Bible. For reference, check the following bible verses- Exodus 28: 17-20 & Revelation 21: 19-20. In these verses, his religious breastplate, covered in precious gemstones, was said to be linked to the twelve Israeli tribes in ancient times.
From mythical stories, Tibetan culture used gemstones where these stories have been rooted to thousands and thousands of years ago. Some even claim that around 1500 BC, it was Indian culture (gemstones seemed to have an agreed-upon fact that they originated from the East), who found out that these gemstones were actually healers of the sick.
George Frederick Kunz, who wrote the Curious Lore of Precious Stones, wrote about Poland in the 15th century- 1700 (where stones first achieved status and popularity), and the belief that these gemstones had numerous abilities: to being good health and luck, and to get rid of any possible misfortune.
Finally, in 1912, the Jewelers of America, organized a standard list of gemstones and their associated birthmonths. To wear your own birthstone in today’s culture, is to wear the beauty of your own birth month. The historical belief still remains though, that these birthstones can guard oneself against bad luck and to make oneself more likely to gain power, wealth and luxury. The American standard identification of birth months with gemstones is the one used by the majority in today’s culture.